Geographical Information System (GIS) or Geospatial information systems are used in a number of areas, for data capture and analysis. GIS has brought about a change in the way in which geographical data is queried, mapped, analyzed, visualized and finally exhibited for a number of purposes.
Let us look into some areas in which GIS are being actively put into use:
There has been no distinction in the use of GIS system, irrespective of their nature. Be it local groups, communities, organizations, research and scientific institutions, planning for usage of land, government agencies and the list goes on. GIS in particular helps the user to identify spatial patterns, store data, present the spatial details visually, remote-sensing, etc., have all been possible through Internet interfaces, which can bring together a multiple number of people of common interest, who may be merely collectors of information or specialist scientists.
The application of GIS in crime has been long recognized. Law enforcement authorities use GIS for analysis of patters of crime and identify where particular types of crime can take place. GIS is a key contributor in analyzing crime, and CompStat Strategy for Policing uses GIS extensively.
With the help of GIS, analysts can zero on the criminals by exactly locating where the criminal could have disposed of the stolen property, for instance pawn shops. GIS also helps police to understand in a better way the pattern of crime, causes for criminal acts, and lets the administrators to sit down and chalk out programs to address the issue of lowering crime rates.
GIS, also helps the police to allocate personnel for taking challenges of rioting and other such group disturbances. Environmental criminology and such other theoretical studies have incorporated information in detail obtained through spatial analysis, auto correlations and heterogeneity. GIS has helped policing authorities and law makers to understand why criminal acts tak place in some areas and not others.