Geographic Information System are used to capture all geographical data, for analysis, storage and presentation of the data. It works with a fairly bigger sphere of Geoinformatics.
GIS can be considered as a handy system that helps you to analyze spatial information, manage and visualization for determining various factors. It is especially useful in cartography, and usually GIS is designed to suit a particular organizational requirement.
Usually deployed with a jurisdictional approach, like a city or country limits, GIS can be barred it from being operated from outside the jurisdictional level where interoperability can be limited. Only when there is another compatible system to work in conjunction does it becomes interoperable.
GIS allows editing, storing, sharing and displaying information pertaining to geographical decision making. GIS applications, on the other hand, help users to formulate user-oriented search mechanisms, creating and editing maps, and come out with results in such areas. In fact, GIS is a broad subject, under which a variety of technological nuances are operated, processed and thus related to many different fields, including engineering, management, travel logistics, telecommunications, etc.
Contemporary GIS methods have adapted digital technology and make use of a number of methods of digitized data. In cartography the important way is to create a map, or a plan for survey, which is then converted into a digital map, with the help of a CAD program as well as enabling geo-referencing capabilities.
Even as satellite and other aerial sources supply “ortho-rectified imagery”, GIS has adapted heads-up digitization which has become an important source for extracting information. In this form of digitization, data of geographic nature is traced over the layer of digitized imagery in place of conventional methods of tracing.